=Hand, foot, and mouth disease cases in infancy, arising from coxsackievirus A10 (CVA10) infections, are typically benign, resolving without any significant adverse events. Severe disease and fatalities, however, can occur in some children,necessitating the development of vaccines and antiviral therapies. The present study has established a newborn-mouse model of CVA10 that, importantly, recapitulates many aspects of human disease with respect to the neuropathology and skeletal muscle pathology. We found that high levels of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 6 correlated with disease severity and that ribavirin and gamma interferon could decrease viral titers in vitro and in vivo. Whole-virus vaccines produced immune responses in adult mice, and immunized mothers conferred protection on neonates against challenge from CVA10 clinical strains. Passive immunization with high-titer antisera could also improve survival rates in newborn animals.